Active Ingredient: Orlistat
Elevated resistin levels in the MetS have been observed, and plasma resistin is positively associated with WC 203, systolic blood pressure 203, 208, and triglycerides 203, 208, whereas it is negatively associated with HDL-C 203, 208.
Resistin shows significant BMI-dependent associations with insulin resistance and factors linked with obesity and inflammation in patients with T 2 D 220.
IL-6 is released by both adipose tissue and skeletal muscle in humans 92, 223 and, despite its role as both an inflammatory and an antiinflammatory molecule, has been shown to be positively associated with BMI, fasting insulin, and the development of T 2 D 224, 225 and negatively associated with HDL-C 226.
Elevated IL-6 correlates temporally with increases in AMP kinase activity in multiple tissues 227 and has potential systemic impact on both glucose and lipid metabolism 228.They found top causes of premature unlike the Israelis include heart disease, lung cancer and of early deaths in the United.
The detriment in insulin signaling mediated by IL-6 is thought to occur at the level of IRS-1 because myotubes incubated with IL-6 have demonstrated a reversal of IRS-1 tyrosine phosphorylation induced by insulin 229.
IL-10 is a major antiinflammatory cytokine that has been associated with insulin resistance, obesity, MetS, and T 2 D 230, 231. IL-10 gene polymorphisms are also identified in the polycystic ovary syndrome 232.
However, IL-10 is significantly correlated with adiponectin, especially in the subjects with the MetS.
It is positively associated with BMI, WC, triglycerides, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, and negatively associated with HDL-C in a nondiabetic Australian population 210. An inverse correlation between IL-18 and the antiatherogenic adipokine adiponectin has been reported in obesity, insulin resistance, CVD, and the MetS 237.
A report from the large population-based Dallas Heart Study showed that in univariate analysis, IL-18 levels were associated with traditional CVD risk factors and particularly with components of the MetS. In multivariate analyses, IL-18 remained associated with multiple components of the MetS but not with coronary artery calcium or aortic plaque 239.
Visfatin also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor is an adipokine that is highly expressed in visceral fat.
Plasma visfatin has been reported to correlate with the degree of visceral adiposity in humans 240 and has been proposed as a surrogate marker for visceral fat accumulation in obese children 241, 242.
There is a significant association between plasma visfatin and visceral visfatin mRNA expression 243. Plasma visfatin levels are elevated in individuals with the MetS 244 and are associated with several components of the MetS.
Interestingly, results from the recent PIOSTAT study suggest that although visfatin has been postulated as a good marker of the MetS, insulin resistance and CVD risk factors are not associated with visfatin levels, and regulation of visfatin secretion occurs through biochemical pathways independent from those influenced by pioglitazone or simvastatin 246.